Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) hull samples from Turkey: phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties, and cytotoxic activities against HeLa, MCF-7, OE-33, and ACC-201 cancer cell lines

Karaoglu E. C., TARHAN L.

JOURNAL OF FOOD MEASUREMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION, vol.16, no.3, pp.2300-2313, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11694-022-01316-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.2300-2313
  • Keywords: Pistacia vera L., Flavonoids, Phenolic acids, Antioxidant activity, Cytotoxic effect, ACID
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The phenolic profiles, antioxidant properties, and cytotoxic activities of Pistacia vera L. hull sample extracts were investigated to contribute to the important research being conducted on the potential bioeconomic applications of plants worldwide. The top six compounds revealed by RP-HPLC-DAD in the flavonoid subgroup and phenolic acid extracts of the hull samples were gallic acid (6726 +/- 58 mu g/g(DW)), quercetin (2991 +/- 96 mu g/g(DW)), catechin (1170 +/- 62 mu g/g(DW)), myricetin (940 +/- 35 mu g/g(DW)), rutin (563 +/- 28 mu g/g(DW)), and protocatechuic acid (539 +/- 9.3 mu g/g(DW)). The flavonoids hesperidin, rutin, isorhamnetin, apigenin, and eupatorin and the phenolic acids benzoic acid, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and t-cinnamic acid were determined in P. vera hull samples for the first time in this study. Of the investigated antioxidant properties of the extracts, the DPPH center dot and HO center dot scavenging capacities were significant, with the best IC50 values of 2.08 +/- 0.11 and 6.11 +/- 0.36 ppm, respectively. Cytotoxic effects of the P. vera hull extracts were most commonly exhibited against the MCF-7 cell line, followed by OE-33, HeLa, and ACC-201. The top IC50 values were 25 +/- 1.3 ppm for HeLa and MCF-7, 28 +/- 2.0 ppm for ACC-201, and 40 +/- 3.2 ppm for OE-33. These results suggest that P.vera hulls show promise for applications in food additives and medicine.