An assessment of the carbon footprint of restaurants based on energy consumption: A case study of a local pizza chain in Turkey

Özgen I., Binboğa G., Güneş S.

Journal of Foodservice Business Research, vol.24, no.6, pp.709-729, 2021 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/15378020.2021.1889910
  • Journal Name: Journal of Foodservice Business Research
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CAB Abstracts, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Hospitality & Tourism Complete, Hospitality & Tourism Index
  • Page Numbers: pp.709-729
  • Keywords: carbon footprint, climate change, greenhouse gases, Restaurants, sustainability
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021 Taylor & Francis.This study calculated the carbon footprint of a local pizza restaurant chain in Izmir, Turkey, based on its operational energy consumption. In Turkey, country-specific greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have not yet been determined and based on legislation, only industrial companies with high emissions are compelled to develop GHG inventory reporting. The study faced several limitations. First, suppliers lack usable carbon footprint information. Second, there are three other local pizza chains in Izmir, which are similar to the one in this case study having more than 10 branches and offering take-home delivery. However, it was also not possible to obtain data from them to make comparisons. Finally, since the case restaurant did not integrate environmental management systems into its organizational structure, it was not possible to use carbon emission assesments under ISO 14064 or PAS 2050. Consequently, because the only reliable data were for the restaurant’s energy consumption our results should be interpreted cautiously when comparing with other types of restaurants in other countries and unavoidable errors should be considered. The Tier 1 approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used to calculate the restaurant’s carbon footprint. Five years of data (2015–2020) were collected from utility bills and purchasing records, which were then converted into CO2 equivalents. Based on this energy consumption data, the restaurant’s carbon footprint was calculated as 1,919.818 tCO2e. To offset this, afforestation was proposed. Specifically, 3,062 trees would have to be planted to make its operations carbon neutral.