Engineering, Biomedical covers resources that apply engineering technology to solving medical problems. Resources in this category span a wide range of applications including applied biomechanics, biorheology, medical imaging, medical monitoring equipment, artificial organs, and implanted materials and devices.


Engineering, Electrical & Electronic covers resources that deal with the applications of electricity, generally those involving current flows through conductors, as in motors and generators. This category also includes resources that cover the conduction of electricity through gases or a vacuum as well as through semiconducting and superconducting materials. Other relevant topics in this category include image and signal processing, electromagnetics, electronic components and materials, microwave technology, and microelectronics.


Engineering, Industrial includes resources that focus on engineering systems that integrate people, materials, capital, and equipment to provide products and services. Relevant topics covered in the category include operations research, process engineering, productivity engineering, manufacturing, computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), industrial economics, and design engineering.


Instruments & Instrumentation includes resources on the application of instruments for observation, measurement, or control of physical and/or chemical systems. This category also includes materials on the development and manufacture of instruments.


Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence covers resources that focus on research and techniques to create machines that attempt to efficiently reason, problem-solve, use knowledge representation, and perform analysis of contradictory or ambiguous information. This category includes resources on artificial intelligence technologies such as expert systems, fuzzy systems, natural language processing, speech recognition, pattern recognition, computer vision, decision-support systems, knowledge bases, and neural networks.


Molecular biology and genetics are two closely related fields within the biological sciences that focus on understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life at the molecular level. Molecular biology is the study of biological processes at the molecular level, examining the structure, function, and interactions of biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. Geneticists investigate the structure and function of genes, gene mutations, genetic disorders, and the mechanisms underlying genetic inheritance. Molecular biology and genetics provide essential insights into the molecular basis of life, inheritance, and evolution. They play critical roles in various fields, including medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and evolutionary biology, and contribute to our understanding of biological systems at both the molecular and organism levels.


The field of pharmacology investigates the effects, mechanisms, processes of action, areas of action, levels of action and possible side effects of drugs. Pharmacology studies a variety of topics, including the discovery and development of new drugs, the efficacy and safety of existing drugs, the dosage and modes of administration of drugs, the prevention and treatment of side effects, pharmaceutical formulations of drugs, and drug interactions. Pharmacology is divided into sub-branches such as clinical pharmacology, molecular pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacogenetics and pharmacoepidemiology. Toxicology is the field that studies the harmful effects of drugs and chemicals on the body. Pharmacology and toxicology are disciplines that are vital for both protecting human health and ensuring the safe and effective use of drugs and chemicals. The research results of these two fields play an important role in the formulation of health policies and the direction of clinical practice.


Biology and biochemistry are two main branches of science that study the basic principles of life. Biology is a broad branch of science that studies all aspects of life. It covers topics such as the structures, functions, and interactions of living organisms. Biology includes many subdisciplines such as anatomy, physiology, genetics, ecology, behavior of organisms in general. Biology is divided into sub-branches such as cell biology, plant biology, animal biology, microbiology, neuroscience, biotechnology, and environmental biology. Biochemistry is a branch of science that studies the chemical basis of biological systems. It investigates the structures and functions of living organisms at the molecular level. The field of biochemistry studies the chemical structures, reactions, and interactions of biomolecules. Biochemistry techniques are used to understand molecular mechanisms in biological systems, and biochemical studies are used to explain and understand biological phenomena.


Clinical medicine uses clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies to diagnose, treat, and manage many different diseases and conditions. However, clinical medicine does not only focus on diagnosing and treating diseases, but also takes a holistic approach to improve the overall health, well-being, and quality of life of patients.