The potential protective effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on some kidney diseases have been reported. However, the effect of the fetal kidney-derived (FKD)MSCs on doxorubicin-induced nephropathy has not been studied yet. This study aimed to treat rats with doxorubicin-induced kidney injuries by transplantation of -FKD-MSCs. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as control, doxorubicin nephropathy (Sham), and doxorubicin + MSC treated group. Serum biochemistry analysis was performed at the beginning and the end of the study. Functional changes in kidneys were evaluated by scintigraphy. In the doxorubicin nephropathy group, histopathological findings such as mesangial cell proliferation, tubular cast, and glomerular hypertrophy were observed, whereas in the MSC group these findings were significantly reduced. CD133 and CD24 positive immunoreactions were the most severe and frequently observed in the MSC group. While positive staining was detected in the tubular epithelium, there was no immunostaining observed in the glomerulus. The results showed that both functional and histological improvements were achieved in the MSC group compared to the Sham group. In conclusion, transplantation of fetal kidney - derived MSCs into patients with renal damage is thought to contribute to the healing of the renal tissue.