Long-term follow-up results and treatment outcomes of children and adults with resistance to thyroid hormone alpha

ERBAŞ İ. C., Çakır M., YENER A. S., DEMİR K.

JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION, no.9, pp.1855-1863, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s40618-023-02043-1
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1855-1863
  • Keywords: Cognitive function, Impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, LT4, THRA
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


PurposeResistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTH alpha) is a rare entity and has no specific treatment. To date, mostly levothyroxine has been used, but there is a lack of knowledge about the long-term outcomes of this treatment. We aimed to evaluate the long-term follow-up results and treatment outcomes of children and their parents diagnosed with RTH alpha.MethodsFour children [the median (minimum-maximum) age at diagnosis, 4.5 (1.4-9.5) years] and three adults [age at diagnosis, 31.7 (28.0-35.3) years] from two families were included in the study, who had RTH alpha and followed up between 2014 and 2021.ResultsThe median duration of treatment was 6.7 (5.9-8.0) years, and the levothyroxine dose at the final visit was 1.4 (1.2-2.2) and 1.9 (1.2-2.4) mcg/kg/day for adults and pediatric patients, respectively. Treatment ameliorated constipation in all patients with this complaint (n = 5). Normal mental functions were achieved and IQ scores improved in most children except one (age at diagnosis, 9.5 years). At the final visit, creatine kinase levels relative to the reference upper limit were significantly lower compared to the pre-treatment ratios [0.9 (0.2-1.3) vs. 1.3 (0.5-1.6), p = 0.028]. Anemia was present in five patients at diagnosis, which resolved in one adult patient but occurred in one child despite treatment (p = 0.999). A minimal pericardial effusion persisted in one pediatric patient.ConclusionsWe demonstrated that constipation was ameliorated, neuromotor development of some children was improved, and creatine kinase levels were diminished with levothyroxine treatment in patients with RTH alpha, while some features including anemia did not resolve.