Risk factors for early ostomy complications in emergency and elective colorectal surgery: A single-center retrospective cohort study.


AYİK C., BİŞGİN T., Cenan D., Manoğlu B., ÖZDEN D., SÖKMEN S.

Scandinavian journal of surgery : SJS : official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

Abstract

Background and Aims: The clinical significance of early ostomy complications has been emphasized worldwide, and the current evidence concerning the impact of emergency or elective surgery on ostomy complications is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of elective and emergency colorectal surgery on early ostomy complications and the risk factors associated with specific complications. Methods: A mandatory colorectal recording system for consecutive ostomy patients between 2012 and 2020 was reviewed retrospectively. Patient socio-demographics, ostomy-related variables, and early period ostomy complications were retrieved from the patient records. The chi-square test, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Results: The study cohort included 872 patients. At least one or more complications developed in 573 (65.7%) patients, 356 (63.6%) in the emergency group, and 217 (69.6%) in the elective group. When comparing emergency surgery to elective surgery, necrosis (7.4% versus 3.4%, p = 0.009), mucocutaneous separation (37.2% versus 27.1%, p = 0.002), and bleeding (6.1% versus 2.1%, p = 0.003) were more prevalent. Peristomal irritant contact dermatitis (PICD) (37.3% versus 26%, p < 0.001) was more common in elective surgery. Risk factors for PICD were comorbidity (p = 0.003), malignant disease (p = 0.047), and loop ostomy (p < 0.001) in elective surgery; female sex (p = 0.025), neo-adjuvant therapy (p = 0.024), and ileostomy (p = 0.006) in emergency surgery. The height of the ostomy (less than 10 mm) was a modifiable risk factor for mucocutaneous separation in both elective surgery (p < 0.001) and emergency surgery (p = 0.045). Conclusion: Early ostomy complications were more likely to occur after emergency colorectal surgery than in an elective setting. Patient- and ostomy-related risk factors for complications differed between elective and emergency surgeries.