Combined application of electrical resistivity tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves methods in the tunnel detection: A case study from Kocaeli University Campus Site, Turkey

DURDAĞ D., DRAHOR M. G., Yağlıdere M. S.

Journal of Applied Geophysics, vol.208, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 208
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2022.104895
  • Journal Name: Journal of Applied Geophysics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), INSPEC
  • Keywords: ERT, MASW, Resistivity, Shear wave velocity, Tunnel
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Elsevier B.V.In this study, two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and one-dimensional multi-channel surface waves analysis (MASW) methods conducted on the surface were used to examine the location of a creek drainage tunnel constructed for the campus road and its relationship with the surrounding geological units in the Kocaeli University campus site results are presented. As it is known, geophysical studies conducted from the surface are generally applied in terms of feasibility and to determine the geological problems in the route of tunnels before the tunnel construction. Geophysical studies revealing the tunnel and associated underground characteristics in a completed tunnel are very limited. Therefore, this study aims to describe the general character of the tunnel and its surroundings in the subsurface, with measurements made by using surface geophysical methods (ERT and MASW) over the tunnel. In the ERT studies, four different arrays were examined to resolve this problem. These are, respectively; Wenner-alpha, −beta, −gamma and Schlumberger. On the tunnel problem here, a possible model similar to the geological structure dominated by the marl layers in the region was synthetically designed with these arrays. In this study, the effectiveness of all these arrays against the problem was tested. Then, by evaluating the data collected from the field, the appropriate array testing was examined for the real problem. In the context of these studies, the results of the MASW studies conducted between 24 and 46 m of the ERT line were compared with the ERT data to reveal the geological phenomena in the tunnel and its vicinity. The resistivity values (ρ) in the 2D electrical resistivity models obtained from ERT have values of ρ > 80 Ωm in the tunnel section and ρ < 55 Ωm in the materials surrounding the tunnel. The medium-high resistivity values characterize the earthfill layer. In MASW studies, it was revealed that shear wave velocity (Vs) values in the tunnel were lower (<250 m/s) and higher (250 and 500 m/s) in the materials surrounding the tunnel. Deep below the tunnel and in the northeastern part of the field, the ground has relatively higher shear wave velocities (Vs > 400 m/s). Because of the comparison of ERT and MASW results, it was revealed that both methods showed good agreement in terms of tunnel depth and size. While the different sequences used in the ERT study generally provided successful results in identifying the tunnel, different model results were revealed in the surrounding earthfill, weathered and intact marl layers. The MASW results, on the other hand, gave more successful results than expected in determining the location of the tunnel. Because of the comparison of both methods, it has been shown that the use of the ERT and MASW methods together can provide more effective results in examining the location of buried tunnels and their relationship with the surrounding geological units.