Acute kidney disease beyond day 7 after major surgery: a secondary analysis of the EPIS-AKI trial


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Meersch M., Weiss R., Strauß C., Albert F., Booke H., Forni L., ...More

Intensive Care Medicine, vol.50, no.2, pp.247-257, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 50 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00134-023-07314-2
  • Journal Name: Intensive Care Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.247-257
  • Keywords: Acute kidney disease, Acute kidney injury, Chronic kidney disease, Postoperative, Surgery
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Purpose: Acute kidney disease (AKD) is a significant health care burden worldwide. However, little is known about this complication after major surgery. Methods: We conducted an international prospective, observational, multi-center study among patients undergoing major surgery. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of AKD (defined as new onset of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eCFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 present on day 7 or later) among survivors. Secondary endpoints included the relationship between early postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) (within 72 h after major surgery) and subsequent AKD, the identification of risk factors for AKD, and the rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with pre-existing CKD. Results: We studied 9510 patients without pre-existing CKD. Of these, 940 (9.9%) developed AKD after 7 days of whom 34.1% experiencing an episode of early postoperative-AKI. Rates of AKD after 7 days significantly increased with the severity (19.1% Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] 1, 24.5% KDIGO2, 34.3% KDIGO3; P < 0.001) and duration (15.5% transient vs 38.3% persistent AKI; P < 0.001) of early postoperative-AKI. Independent risk factors for AKD included early postoperative-AKI, exposure to perioperative nephrotoxic agents, and postoperative pneumonia. Early postoperative-AKI carried an independent odds ratio for AKD of 2.64 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.21–3.15). Of 663 patients with pre-existing CKD, 42 (6.3%) had worsening CKD at day 90. In patients with CKD and an episode of early AKI, CKD progression occurred in 11.6%. Conclusion: One in ten major surgery patients developed AKD beyond 7 days after surgery, in most cases without an episode of early postoperative-AKI. However, early postoperative-AKI severity and duration were associated with an increased rate of AKD and early postoperative-AKI was strongly associated with AKD independent of all other potential risk factors.