Determination of UV Filters in Waste Sludge Using QuEChERS Method Followed by In-Port Derivatization Coupled with GC–MS/MS

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Yücel C., Karapınar İ., Tüzün S. C., Ertaş H., Ertaş F. N.

Methods and Protocols, vol.5, no.6, 2022 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 5 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/mps5060092
  • Journal Name: Methods and Protocols
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Keywords: in-port derivatization, QuEChERS, UVFs, waste sludge
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


UV filters (UVFs) are widely used in personal care and in industrial products for protection against photodegradation. In recent years, their potential toxicological and environmental effects have received growing attention. Due to their excessive use, their residue levels in the environment are gradually increasing and they tend to accumulate on biological wastewater treatment sludge. The utilization of sludge as fertilizer could be one of the main routes of UVF contamination in the environment. Therefore, the development of a reliable and sensitive method of analyzing their trace level residues in waste sludge samples is of great importance. The success of the method largely depends on the sample preparation technique in such complex matrices. This study presents a rapid, sensitive and green analysis method for eight UVFs in sludge samples, selected for their rather low no-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC). For this purpose, the QuEChERS methodology was coupled with in-port derivatization for subsequent detection of the targeted UVFs via GC–MS/MS. The analysis time was substantially shortened using this method, and reagent utilization was also reduced. The method was validated in the sludge samples, and high recovery (66–123%) and low RSD values (<25.6%) were obtained. In addition, major contributing uncertainty sources and expanded uncertainties were determined.