The effects of estrogen and raloxifene treatment on the antioxidant enzymes and nitrite-nitrate levels in brain cortex of ovariectomized rats

Oge A., SEZER E., Ozgonul M., Bayraktar F., YILDIRIM SÖZMEN E.

NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS, vol.338, no.3, pp.217-220, 2003 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 338 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0304-3940(02)01416-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.217-220
  • Keywords: estrogen, raloxifene, cortex, nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, catalase, DEPLETION
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Number of studies indicate that the female gonadal hormone estrogen protects women against several neurodegenerative diseases and cerebral ischemia via various mechanisms. The possible protective effects of estrogen are mediated mainly by three ways; the activation of steroid receptors and/or modulation of a neurotransmitter and/or direct antioxidative action. Therefore we aimed to investigate the effects of estradiol and raloxifene on levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes in brain cortex of ovariectomized female rats. Ten Sprague-Dawley rats were used as naive controls while 32 rats were ovariectomized at 120-140 days of age. Twelve weeks after ovariectomy: (1) Ovariectomized Placebo group (n = 11), was given physiologic saline. (2) Estrogen group (n = 10) was given Ethynyl estradiol, 0.1 mg/kg sc. (3) Raloxifene group (n = 10) was given raloxifene, 1 mg/kg sc. At the end of the treatment period (8 weeks), rats were decapitated and cortex samples were dissected. Results showed that ovariectomy caused a decrease in total nitrite-nitrate levels. The NO levels of both the estrogen and the raloxifene group were higher than the placebo group. Catalase activities did not show any significant difference between the groups, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were elevated via ovariectomy. Estradiol and Raloxifene treatment had no statistically significant effect on SOD activity. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.