Bone regeneration in implant dentistry: Which are the factors affecting the clinical outcome?

Donos N., Akcali A., Padhye N., Sculean A., Calciolari E.

Periodontology 2000, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/prd.12518
  • Journal Name: Periodontology 2000
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: biomaterial, bone regeneration, dehiscence, dental implants, fenestration, predictability, risk factor
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The key factors that are needed for bone regeneration to take place include cells (osteoprogenitor and immune-inflammatory cells), a scaffold (blood clot) that facilitates the deposition of the bone matrix, signaling molecules, blood supply, and mechanical stability. However, even when these principles are met, the overall amount of regenerated bone, its stability over time and the incidence of complications may significantly vary. This manuscript provides a critical review on the main local and systemic factors that may have an impact on bone regeneration, trying to focus, whenever possible, on bone regeneration simultaneous to implant placement to treat bone dehiscence/fenestration defects or for bone contouring. In the future, it is likely that bone tissue engineering will change our approach to bone regeneration in implant dentistry by replacing the current biomaterials with osteoinductive scaffolds combined with cells and mechanical/soluble factors and by employing immunomodulatory materials that can both modulate the immune response and control other bone regeneration processes such as osteogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, or inflammation. However, there are currently important knowledge gaps on the biology of osseous formation and on the factors that can influence it that require further investigation. It is recommended that future studies should combine traditional clinical and radiographic assessments with non-invasive imaging and with patient-reported outcome measures. We also envisage that the integration of multi-omics approaches will help uncover the mechanisms responsible for the variability in regenerative outcomes observed in clinical practice.