In light of growing concern and insufficient knowledge on the negative impact of aircraft emissions on environmental health, this study strives to investigate the air burden of major and trace elements caused by general aviation, piston-engine, and turboprop aircraft, within the vicinity of Eskisehir Hasan Polatkan Airport (Eskisehir, Turkey). The levels of 57 elements were investigated, based on moss bag biomonitoring using Sphagnum sp., along with chemical analyses of lubrication oil and aviation gasoline fuel used in the aircraft's operations. Five sampling sites were selected within the vicinity of the airport area to capture spatial changes in the concentration of airborne elements. The study demonstrates that moss bag biomonitoring is a useful tool in the identification of differences in the air burden by major and trace elements that have concentrated downwind of the aircraft emission sources. Moreover, pollutant enrichment in the Sphagnum moss bags and elemental characterization of oil/fuel are in agreement suggesting that Pb, followed by Cd, Cu, Mo, Cr, Ni, Fe, Si, Zn, Na, P, Ca, Mg, and Al are dominant elements that shaped the general aviation aircraft emissions.