Integration of paratransit systems with inner-city bus transport: the case of Izmir

Kalpakci A., Unverdi N.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT, vol.8, no.3, pp.405-426, 2016 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12469-016-0136-9
  • Journal Name: PUBLIC TRANSPORT
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.405-426
  • Keywords: Mass transport systems, Paratransit systems, Integration, SERVICES
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Rapid increases in population and migration forces the growth of development areas to be directed towards the urban fringes through either disjointed incrementalism or sprawl. Since an increasing population creates the need for a parallel expansion of transport facilities, and due to the inadequacies of existing mass transportation networks, this need is best met by paratransit systems. In cities where the population is reaching saturation levels, the rising demand for travel imposes a heavy load on transport networks, which in turn implies that the development and integration of mass transportation networks should be a priority. As an intermediate means of mass transportation between public and private systems, paratransit services provide support by offering considerable opportunities, particularly for the topographically disadvantageous areas which often emerge as result of unplanned and uncontrolled growth. Especially in developing countries, paratransit services can also be regarded as complementary to mass transportation networks and are often preferred as a solution (though short-term) to challenging transportation problems that cannot be overcome by public services. This study targets the integration of public bus transport systems with that of paratransit services while still maintaining the original management structure of both. Within this context, the study presents an examination of the city center of Izmir, Turkey. The proposed method involves the estimation of the costs and benefits of bus routes, the determination of routes to be allocated to a paratransit system, and management proposals for the integration of paratransit services into the network. There also has been an additional analysis regarding the costs and benefits, examining their distribution within the sprawling development of urban areas, determining districts where bus lines operate with the least profit and where the number of transfers from the bus system to paratransit systems is the highest. In this vein, suggestions are made with reference to how and in which districts there can be optimum integration of public and paratransit transport.