Seasonal and spatial variations of atmospheric trace elemental deposition in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey


Kara M., DUMANOĞLU Y., ALTIOK H., ELBİR T., ODABAŞI M., BAYRAM A.

ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH, vol.149, pp.204-216, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 149
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.06.009
  • Journal Name: ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.204-216
  • Keywords: Atmospheric bulk deposition, Elemental composition, Enrichment factor, Principal component analysis, Iron-steel production, PARTICULATE MATTER, SOURCE APPORTIONMENT, BULK DEPOSITION, HEAVY-METALS, DRY-DEPOSITION, AIR-POLLUTION, AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS, SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION, SIZE-DISTRIBUTION
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Atmospheric bulk deposition (wet + dry deposition) samples (n = 40) were collected concurrently at ten sites in four seasons between June 2009 and April 2010 in the Aliaga heavily industrialized region, Turkey, containing a number of significant air pollutant sources. Analyses of trace elements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). While there were significant differences in the particulate matter (PM) deposition fluxes among the sampling sites, seasonal variations were not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p <0.05). Both PM deposition and elemental fluxes were increased at the sampling sites in the vicinity of industrial activities. The crustal elements (i.e., Ca, Mg) and some anthropogenic elements (such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, and Cr) were high, and the highest fluxes were mostly measured in summer and winter seasons. The enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to determine the possible sources in the study area. High EF values were obtained for the anthropogenic elements such as Ag, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Sb. The possible sources were identified as anthropogenic sources (i.e., iron-steel production) (45.4%), crustal and re-suspended dust (27.1%), marine aerosol (7.9%), and coal and wood combustion (8.2%). Thus, the iron-steel production and its related activities were found to be the main pollutant sources for this region. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.