THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSIT TRADE OF IRAN IN THE TRIANGLE OF RUSSIA, OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND IRAN IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY


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Çetin M.

TARIH INCELEMELERI DERGISI, vol.36, no.1, pp.21-52, 2021 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.18513/egetid.974591
  • Journal Name: TARIH INCELEMELERI DERGISI
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), MLA - Modern Language Association Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.21-52
  • Keywords: Ottoman Empire, Russia, the transit trade of Iran, 19th Century, Eurasian Economic History
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The transit trade of Iran had great importance for both the Ottoman Empire and the European economies for accessing raw materials. This trade had largely been under the control of the Ottoman Empire until the last quarter of the 18th century. The loss of this monopoly according to the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji in 1774 and the gradual domination of Russia over the Caucasus turned the transit trade of Iran into a big problem between the Ottoman Empire and Russia in the following period. In this study, the course of the transit trade of Iran in the 19th century will be evaluated with its development in different areas within the context of the policy measures taken by the Ottoman Empire to prevent the diversion in the transit trade and taken by Russia to attract this trade to its territory. Concordantly, the development of regional trade under this competition is aimed to be set forth using primary sources. The findings show that the commercial activities in the north of Iran were gradually seized by Russia, and the Ottoman government could not realize the attempts needed under the constraints it had, which resulted in and the emergence of alternative routes between the West and Iran.