The Role of Cyanidin-3-<i>O</i>-glucoside in Modulating Oxaliplatin Resistance by Reversing Mesenchymal Phenotype in Colorectal Cancer

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Kurter H., Basbinar Y., Ellidokuz H., Calibasi-Kocal G.

NUTRIENTS, no.22, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/nu15224705
  • Journal Name: NUTRIENTS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the biological and biochemical processes of cells, and it is a critical process in the malignant transformation, and mobility of cancer. Additionally, EMT is one of the main mechanisms contributing to chemoresistance. Resistance to oxaliplatin (OXA) poses a momentous challenge in the chemotherapy of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, highlighting the need to reverse drug resistance and improve patient survival. In this study, we explored the response of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), the most abundant anthocyanin in plants, on the mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer, with the purpose of overcoming acquired OXA resistance in CRC cell lines. Methods: We generated an acquired OXA-resistant cell line, named HCT-116-ROx, by gradually exposing parental HCT-116 cells to increasing concentrations of OXA. To characterize the resistance, we performed cytotoxicity assays and shape factor analyses. The apoptotic rate of both resistant and parental cells was determined using Hoechst 33342/Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescence staining. Migration capacity was evaluated using a wound-healing assay. The mesenchymal phenotype was assessed through qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining, employing E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin markers. Results: Resistance characterization announced decreased OXA sensitivity in resistant cells compared to parental cells. Moreover, the resistant cells exhibited a spindle cell morphology, indicative of the mesenchymal phenotype. Combined treatment of C3G and OXA resulted in an augmented apoptotic rate in the resistant cells. The migration capacity of resistant cells was higher than parental cells, while treatment with C3G decreased the migration rate of HCT-116-ROx cells. Analysis of EMT markers showed that HCT-116-ROx cells exhibited loss of the epithelial phenotype (E-cadherin) and gain of the mesenchymal phenotype (N-cadherin and Vimentin) compared to HCT-116 cells. However, treatment of resistant cells with C3G reversed the mesenchymal phenotype. Conclusion: The morphological observations of cells acquiring oxaliplatin resistance indicated the loss of the epithelial phenotype and the acquisition of the mesenchymal phenotype. These findings suggest that EMT may contribute to acquired OXA resistance in CRC. Furthermore, C3G decreased the mobility of resistant cells, and reversed the EMT process, indicating its potential to overcome acquired OXA resistance.