Origin and evolution of hydrothermal fluids in epithermal Pb-Zn-Cu +/- Au +/- Ag deposits at Koru and Tesbihdere mining districts, Canakkale, Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey


ORE GEOLOGY REVIEWS, vol.78, pp.176-195, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 78
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.03.020
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.176-195
  • Keywords: Turkey, Intermediate sulfidation, Epithermal deposits, Fluid inclusion, Oxygen-hydrogen isotopes, Lead isotope, OXYGEN ISOTOPE-EXCHANGE, WESTERN ANATOLIA, GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS, MINERALIZATION, GENESIS, CONSTRAINTS, VOLCANISM, INCLUSION, SILVER, GOLD
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The Koru and Tesbihdere mining districts in Biga Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey, consist of twelve deposits covering approximately 12 km(2). The epithermal Au-Ag enriched base metal veins and associated low-grade breccia and stockwork at Koru and Tesbihdere are hosted by Oligocene subaerial and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks including basaltic andesite lavas, dacitic lava-tuffs, rhyolitic lava-domes and tuffs. NW- to N-trending strike-slip faults and E- and NE-trending faults constitute the most important ore-controlling structures in the Koru and Tesbihdere districts respectively. In the Koru mining district, galena is the dominant ore mineral in barite-quartz veins containing sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, enargite and tennantite. According to base metal content, the Tesbihdere mining district can be subdivided into sphalerite-galena dominated Tesbihdere mineralization and chalcopyrite-pyrite dominated Bakir and Kuyu Zones mineralization. Gold is present in small quantities with maximum 3.14 g/t Au values either as free grains in quartz or as micro inclusions in pyrite and galena. The most widespread silver minerals are polybasite, pearceite, argentite and native silver which commonly occur as replacements of galena, sphalerite and pyrite, and other sulfides, or as fillings of microfractures in sulfides and quartz.