Distribution and chemical speciation of heavy metals in the surficial sediments of the Bakircay and Gediz Rivers, Eastern Aegean

Aydin S., Kucuksezgin F.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.65, no.3, pp.789-803, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-011-1124-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.789-803
  • Keywords: Sequential extraction, Heavy metals, Sediment, Metal pollution, Gediz River, Bakircay River, Eastern Aegean, SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION PROCEDURE, MARINE-SEDIMENTS, FRACTIONATION, ELEMENTS, COAST, POLLUTION, SEA
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The pollution of aquatic ecosystem by heavy metals has assumed serious proportions due to their toxicity and accumulative behaviour. The toxicity and fate of the water borne metal is dependent on its chemical form and therefore quantification of the different forms of metal is more meaningful than the estimation of its total metal concentrations. A five-step sequential extraction procedure was applied for the determination of the distribution of seven elements (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe) in sediment samples collected from BakA +/- r double dagger ay and Gediz Rivers. According to this study, the results of metals are mostly retained in the residual, oxidizable and reducible fractions. Based on the chemical distribution of metals, we found that Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni are the most non-mobile metals. Pb is the metal that showed the highest percentages in the residual and reducible fractions. Mn is present in the higher percentages in the reducible and carbonate fractions. However, Fe is present in the greatest percentages in the residual fraction, which implies that these metals are strongly linked to the sediments. The risk assessment code as applied to the present study shows that about 12.3-26.9 and 15.7-33.5% of manganese at most of the sites exist in carbonate fraction in the BakA +/- r double dagger ay and Gediz Rivers, respectively. Therefore, Mn comes under the medium risk category in the BakA +/- r double dagger ay and high-risk category in the Gediz River. Speciation pattern of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Fe shows low to medium risk to aquatic environment health in both rivers.