Extrapulmonary features of post-COVID-19 patients: muscle function, physical activity, mood, and sleep quality.

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Irish journal of medical science, vol.191, no.3, pp.969-975, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 191 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11845-021-02667-3
  • Journal Name: Irish journal of medical science
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.969-975
  • Keywords: COVID-19, Mood, Muscle strength, Physical activity, Sleep quality, ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE, GRIP STRENGTH, RELIABILITY, COVID-19, VALIDITY, PERFORMANCE, AGE
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a wide range of clinical manifestations, even if mild disease severity. It has been known that pulmonary function is affected by COVID-19 during infection and mid-to-long term. However, there is inadequate evidence about extrapulmonary features in post-COVID-19 patients. Aims This study aimed to investigate extrapulmonary features in post-COVID-19 patients who recovered from mild and moderate disease severity in the mid-term. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out after at least 12 weeks from the COVID-19 diagnosis. Disease severity was defined using criteria for clinical severity of confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using the dynamometer. Physical performance was assessed with five times sit-to-stand and 4-m gait speed. Physical activity level (PAL), mood, and sleep quality were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety, and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, respectively. Results A total of 48 participants with post-COVID-19 (39.2 +/- 7.9 years, 54.2% women) were included in the study. Handgrip and quadriceps weakness was observed in 39.6% and 35.4% of the participants, respectively. PAL was low in 39.6%, moderate in 33.3%, and high in 27.1% of the participants. Anxiety, depression, and poor sleep quality were observed in 33.3%, 29.2%, and 50% of the participants, respectively. Conclusions Extrapulmonary features are adversely affected in a substantial proportion of post-COVID-19 patients who recovered from mild and moderate disease severity in the mid-term. Comprehensive assessment and appropriate intervention strategies should also be considered for non-severe post-COVID-19 patients.