Virtual Assessment of Sex: Linear and Angular Traits of the Mandibular Ramus Using Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography

Inci E., Ekizoglu O., Turkay R., Aksoy S., CAN İ. Ö., SOLMAZ D., ...More

JOURNAL OF CRANIOFACIAL SURGERY, vol.27, no.7, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/scs.0000000000002979
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Forensic anthropology, imaging, mandible, multidetector computed tomography, sex determination analysis, three-dimensional, DIMORPHISM, FLEXURE, RELIABILITY, MORPHOLOGY, INDICATOR, SURFACE
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Morphometric analysis of the mandibular ramus (MR) provides highly accurate data to discriminate sex. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of MR morphometric analysis for sex identification in a Turkish population.Four hundred fifteen Turkish patients (18-60 y; 201 male and 214 female) who had previously had multidetector computed tomography scans of the cranium were included in the study. Multidetector computed tomography images were obtained using three-dimensional reconstructions and a volume-rendering technique, and 8 linear and 3 angular values were measured. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate discriminant analyses were performed, and the accuracy rates for determining sex were calculated.Mandibular ramus values produced high accuracy rates of 51% to 95.6%. Upper ramus vertical height had the highest rate at 95.6%, and bivariate analysis showed 89.7% to 98.6% accuracy rates with the highest ratios of mandibular flexure upper border and maximum ramus breadth. Stepwise discrimination analysis gave a 99% accuracy rate for all MR variables.Our study showed that the MR, in particular morphometric measures of the upper part of the ramus, can provide valuable data to determine sex in a Turkish population. The method combines both anthropological and radiologic studies.