The present study attempts to find out the paradox in management of grouper fishing in southern Aegean Sea, Turkey. The study also proposes some Suggestions for a more rational and more effective management of this species. Material of the study is composed of records of fishing cooperatives in the area, interview with the cooperative managers, annual grouper length values and catch-effort data. Throughout the season, 2411 fishing operations have been carried, 383 of which have been focused on especially groupers. The total catch has been recorded as 1448 kg, with a CPUE value of 3.78 kg per vessel. The study also reveals that the ratio of groupers caught below legally allowed length is 13.3%, however, considering outputs of the studies made on the biology of the species, it has also been observed that 85% of the sampled groupers in Gokova bay are prematurely caught before they reach the sexual maturity required for guaranteed sustainability, and thus the species is endangered. Hence, it is very essential to determine the reproductive cycle of groupers, which are the most important species in the fishery of Gokova Bay. However, species selectivity is impossible with the currently used gears. Therefore it would be more rational and effective to determine the reproduction areas of the related species and declare these areas "No Take Zones" which is going to affect postively not only the species but also whole ecoystem they live in.