Similarities and differences of neuropsychological functions, metacognitive abilities and resilience in Cognitive Disengagement Syndrome (CDS) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Özyurt G., Karagöz Tanıgör E., Buran B. Ş., Öztürk Y., Tufan A. E., AKAY A.

Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/21622965.2024.2358239
  • Journal Name: Applied Neuropsychology: Child
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Cognitive Disengagement Syndrome, metacognition, neuropsychological functioning, resilience
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


It was aimed to evaluate the relationships between neuropsychological functions, self-reported metacognitive abilities, and resilience levels among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and those with Cognitive Disengagement Syndrome (CDS) compared to healthy controls. This cross-sectional, case-control study was consisted of 36 children with CDS only, 36 with ADHD only, 33 with CDS and ADHD and 39 control children were enrolled for a total sample of 144 children. The intellectual and neuropsychological functioning of the participating children was evaluated using the WISC-IV. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children(MAI-C), Emotional Resilience Scale(ERS), and Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale(RCADS) were used. In both Processing Speed Index (PSI) and Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), children with CDS had significantly lower scores compared to those with ADHD, while those with ADHD and ADHD + CDS were similar to each other and controls. Children with CDS had greater metacognitive awareness than those with ADHD only and those with ADHD + CDS, whereas controls had the greatest level of metacognitive awareness. The emotional sensitivity of children with CDS was similar to that of children with ADHD + CDS and significantly greater than that of children with ADHD and controls, while control children had the lowest levels. The results of this study suggest that metacognitive abilities and emotional resilience may be targeted in rehabilitation/therapy of children with CDS ± ADHD and that interventions targeting processing speed and perceptual reasoning in younger children with CDS symptoms may be beneficial.