Development of Quality of Life Assessment Questionnaire Associated with Osmophobia in People with Migraine


PAIN MEDICINE, vol.23, no.5, pp.1006-1014, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/pm/pnab314
  • Journal Name: PAIN MEDICINE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo, SportDiscus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1006-1014
  • Keywords: Migraine Headache, Osmophobia, Quality Of Life, Questionnaire, TENSION-TYPE HEADACHE, OLFACTORY DISORDERS, IMPACT, ATTACKS, PAIN
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Background It is important to implement disease-specific precautions to develop quality of life in migraine. The effect of osmophobia, which is one of the specific symptoms of migraine that might help to differentiate migraine from other headache disorders, on quality of life is unknown. The aim of the present study was to develop a practicable and reliable scale that assesses the effect of osmophobia on quality of life in migraine. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out with 163 patients with migraine and 110 healthy individuals for control group. The scale items were constructed based on after literature review, expert opinions, and preliminary trial stage. A semi-structured interview was conducted with the patients by the Neurologist to evaluate the presence of osmophobia retrospectively. Migraine osmophobia-related quality of life assessment (MORA) consisted of 6 items including personal care, eating or cooking, house cleaning, close relationship, social life and traveling. Results The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.86; and the Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.943 (95%) confidence interval [CI] = 0.902-0.984), a cutoff score of >9.5, a sensitivity of 91.6%, a specificity of 85.7%. Mean scores of the MORA differed between people with migraine (with and without osmophobia) and healthy controls (<0.001). Conclusion MORA is a valid and reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses the effect of osmophobia on quality of life in migraine. This questionnaire appears to be a practicable diagnostic instrument in clinical practice and research.