Intraday and interday variations of 69 volatile organic compounds (BVOCs and AVOCs) and their source pro files at a semi-urban site


SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol.723, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 723
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138028
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Analytical Abstracts, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: 6-hourly variations, Anthropogenic VOCs, Biogenic VOCs, Source apportionment, Positive matrix factorization, POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION, SOURCE APPORTIONMENT, OZONE POLLUTION, COMPOUNDS VOCS, EMISSIONS, HYDROCARBONS, TURKEY, AREA, ATMOSPHERE, ATLANTA
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


To study the intraday and interday patterns and possible sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 6-h active sampling was performed in April, May, June, July, and August 2017 and in January 2018 in a semi-urban site in Bolu, Turkey. Totally 69 VOCs having biogenic (BVOCs, i.e., isoprene, monoterpenes and oxygenated VOCs) and anthropogenic origins (AVOCs) were examined. Fifty-four of sixty-nine analyzed VOCs could be detected. Decanal followed by benzaldehyde, benzene, phenol, and toluene were detected as the leading anthropogenic VOCs whereas alpha-pinene and hexanal were the dominant biogenic VOCs. There was a decrease in concentrations of most of the VOCs in January and April when light intensity and temperature were relatively low. Atmospheric levels of total biogenic VOCs exceeded that of anthropogenic VOCs in all months except for January and April. Dependence of biogenic VOC emissions on the light intensity, temperature and the increase in leaves were considered to be effective in their higher levels in summer and daytime periods. The daytime anthropogenic VOCs concentrations were higher than the nighttime anthropogenic VOCs probably due to intense vehicle traffic during working hours and/or increased volatilization from their sources at elevated temperatures. The VOCs that significantly and negatively correlated with ozone were evaluated as effective BVOCs in the ozone formation while the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method gave the contribution of AVOCs. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied for the source apportionment. G score graphs and G score pollution roses were also used to identify possible sources of investigated VOCs. Solvent evaporation, gasoline-powered vehicle emissions, fossil fuel (residential heating), biogenic (hornbeam, grass, oak, beech) emissions, diesel/domestic activities and forested city atmosphere were identified as the possible VOC sources in the study area. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.