Subsurface Optical Stimulation of Rat Prostate Cavernous Nerves using a Continuous Wave, Single Mode, 1490 nm Diode Laser

TOZBURUN S., Stahl C. S. D., Hutchens T. C., Lagoda G. A., Burnett A. L., Fried N. M.

Conference on Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics IX, San-Francisco, Costa Rica, 2 - 07 February 2013, vol.8565 identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Volume: 8565
  • Doi Number: 10.1117/12.2000533
  • City: San-Francisco
  • Country: Costa Rica
  • Keywords: cavernous nerves, infrared, neurovascular bundle, optical nerve stimulation, prostate, subsurface, COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY, ERECTILE FUNCTION, IN-VIVO, CAVERMAP, COMPACT
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: No


Successful identification of the cavernous nerves (CN's) during radical prostatectomy requires detection of the CN's through a thin layer of overlying fascia. This study explores the 1490 nm infrared (IR) diode laser wavelength for rapid and deep subsurface CN stimulation in a rat model, in vivo. A 150-mW, 1490-nm diode laser providing an optical penetration depth of similar to 520 mu m was used to stimulate the CN's in 8 rats through a single mode fiber optic probe with 1-mm-diameter spot and 15 s irradiation time. Successful ONS was judged by an intracavernous pressure response (ICP) in the rat penis. Subsurface ONS at 1490 nm was also compared with previous studies using 1455 and 1550 nm IR diode laser wavelengths. ONS was observed through fascia layers up to 380 mu m thick using an incident laser power of similar to 50 mW. ICP response times as short as 4.6 +/- 0.2 s were recorded using higher laser powers bust still below the nerve damage threshold. The 1490-nm diode laser represents a compact, low cost, high power, and high quality infrared light source for use in ONS. This wavelength provides deeper optical penetration than 1455 nm and more rapid and efficient nerve stimulation than 1550 nm.