COMMUNICATIONS IN ALGEBRA, vol.48, no.3, pp.1231-1248, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)
Let R be a commutative ring with identity. A short exact sequence of R-modules is said to be neat (respectively, -pure) if the sequence (respectively, ) is exact for every simple R-module S. The characterization of the integral domains over which neatness and -purity coincide has been given by L?szl? Fuchs: they are the integral domains where every maximal ideal is projective (and so also finitely generated). We show that for a commutative ring R, every maximal ideal of R is finitely generated and projective if and only if R has projective socle and neatness and -purity coincide. For a commutative ring R, we prove that neatness and -purity coincide if and only if every maximal ideal of R is finitely generated and the unique maximal ideal P-P of the local ring R-P is a principal ideal for every maximal ideal P of R. This result is proved firstly over commutative local rings and then using localization over any commutative ring. The Auslander-Bridger transpose of simple modules is used in proving these equivalences because it is an essential tool for the passage between proper classes of short exact sequences of modules that are projectively generated and these that are flatly generated by a set of finitely presented modules. For a commutative ring R, we prove that neatness and -purity coincide if and only if every simple R-module S is finitely presented and an Auslander-Bridger transpose of S is projectively equivalent to S.