Urinary waste products (UWP) in the amniotic fluid have been held responsible for the intestinal damage (ID) in gastroschisis, based on the fact that the fetus urinates physiologically into the amniotic cavity. However, experimental and clinical evidence suggests that intrauterine defecation is a physiological event; thus gastrointestinal waste products (GWP) may also be responsible for ID in gastroschisis. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal human neonatal urine and diluted meconium on rat intestines. Adult Wistar albino rats were used. Sterile urine and meconium were obtained from newborn humans and 5% meconium suspension was prepared. Histopathological features of the intestines of the rats injected with urine did not differ from the intestines of the untreated rats. The bowel in rats injected with a meconium suspension showed serosal thickening, inflammation, focal fibrin and collagen deposits. Histopathological changes in intestines induced by intraperitoneal diluted meconium were consistent with those described for human gastroschisis specimens. We conclude that GWP, rather than UWP, seems to be responsible for the ID in gastroschisis.