Effect of metals on simultaneous ABE fermentation and biohydrogen production from fig (Ficus carica) via Plackett-Burman experimental design


Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13399-023-04886-3
  • Journal Name: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Acetone, Biohydrogen, Butanol, Ethanol, Fig, Plackett-Burman design
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Fig (Ficus carica) is a sugar-rich lignocellulosic fruit, making it an excellent biomass candidate for biofuels. Metals are important precursors in biochemical transformation pathways and also play major roles in microbial metabolism when present in the appropriate concentrations. In this study, the effects of cations (Co2+, Cu2+, Mn+, Fe2+, Na+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ca2+, K+, Mo3+, B3+) on ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, organic acids, and biohydrogen production with fig as biomass was done using Plackett-Burman statistical design. Mo3+ and Na+ were the most significant elements favoring acetone, butanol, and ethanol production. Mo3+ and Fe2+ strongly supported organic acids (acetic and butyric acid production) while Fe2+, Zn2+, Ca2+, K+, and Mo3+ favored hydrogen production rates. In our study, Mo3+, an unreported element from previous studies, was found to be highly influential in the ABE fermentation process and H2 production. Optimization studies were conducted within the ranges of the significant cations on responses tested in our study achieving ABE (6.3, 5.03, and 1.6 g L−1, respectively), acetic and butyric acids (6.9 and 3.9 g L−1, respectively) and hydrogen production rate (51.5 ml H2 L−1 h−1). Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]