Forensic age estimation by the Schmeling method: computed tomography analysis of the medial clavicular epiphysis

Ekizoglu O., Hocaoglu E., Inci E., Sayin I., Solmaz D., Bilgili M. G., ...More

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, vol.129, no.1, pp.203-210, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 129 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00414-014-1121-y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.203-210
  • Keywords: Age estimation, Schmeling method, Medial clavicular epiphyses, Computed tomography, TIME FRAME, OSSIFICATION, CT, INDIVIDUALS, STAGE
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The variability of anthropometric measures, such as the degree of ossification, among societies should be taken into account when estimating age. The degree of ossification of the medial clavicle can be determined with thin-section computed tomography (CT), which is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the applicability of thin-section CT analysis of the degree of ossification of the medial clavicle in a Turkish population. We evaluated the CT images (1-mm slice thickness) of 503 patients (362 male, 141 female; age, 10-35 years) using the Schmeling five-stage method. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between age and ossification stage in both male and female patients (total group: rho = 0.838, p < 0.001; male: rho = 0.831, p < 0.001; female: rho = 0.856, p < 0.001). The linear regression analysis results indicated that the ossification stage of the medial clavicle is a good predictor when estimating age (r (2) = 0.735 for all patients, 0.734 for male patients, 0.741 for female patients). Sex differences in ossification stages were observed only for stage 1 and 4 ossification. We believe that future research could expand the database on this topic and contribute to improvements in this measurement method.