Long-term spatial-temporal monitoring of eutrophication in Lake Burdur using remote sensing data

Tuygun G., Salgut S., Elçi A.

WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.2023113, pp.1-11, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2023113
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.2166/wst.2023.113
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Analytical Abstracts, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chimica, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-11
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Lake eutrophication continues to be one of the major environmental challenges in lakes worldwide. This study is about using a remote sensing approach to monitor long-term chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations and the trophic state index (TSI) in Lake Burdur, Türkiye. Surface reflectances from Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Landsat 8 satellite image collections were evaluated with an empirical equation to estimate a 38-year-long (1984–2021) time series of the lake's median Chl-a concentrations. Pixel quality masking is applied to retain only acceptable quality information and exclude images affected by cloud cover, icing, and other environmental factors from the analysis. The results were analyzed based on annual, seasonal, and monthly temporal averages. Over a period of 38 years, Chl-a concentrations were found to vary between 58.7 and 196.4 mg/m3. Notably higher concentrations were recorded in 2010 and 2021, while lower concentrations were observed between 1991 and 1993. A substantial increase in Chl-a concentration was evident from 2002 to 2010. The maximum concentration of Chl-a during the first two decades of the analysis was 130 mg/m3, which increased to 200 mg/m3 during the last two decades. Landsat-derived TSI values suggested that Lake Burdur has been mostly hypertrophic for the entire study period.