Dynamics of ships and fenders during berthing in a time domain

Neser G., Unsalan D.

OCEAN ENGINEERING, vol.33, pp.1919-1934, 2006 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 33
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2005.10.020
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1919-1934
  • Keywords: fender forces, ship berthing, Cummins equations, time domain modeling
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: No


When designing fixed or semi-fixed structures used for berthing ships, it is generally assumed that the entire kinetic energy of the ship is absorbed by the fender or the system of fenders. The fenders have the functions of ensuring a safe berthing both for the ships and the piers by absorbing shock loads and preventing direct contact between the berthed ship and the pier. In this study, the problem is analyzed in the stages of berthing, collision and leaving. Each of the stages is analyzed and solved in the time domain. The system is assumed to consist of three components: pier, fender and the ship. Environmental effects that simultaneously affect berthing are wave, current and wind effects. Cummins equation was assumed to be a good representation of the problem and was solved in time domain taking various factors into account. Nonlinear effects related to the instantaneous values of forces, moments and ship motions, which are time dependent, were studied by the Cummins equation and its later developments by Ogilvie. Fender forces were added to the calculation scheme by the authors. A case study for a passenger ferry operating in Izmir bay is presented. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.