Evaluation of the Geogenic-Effected Groundwater Antimony Pollution, in the Settlement Area, Utilizing the Water Quality Index and Health Risk Assessments: A Case Study from Kiraz Basin, İzmir, Turkiye


Somay Altaş A. M., Gokcen-Yilmaz S.

ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY, vol.2023, no.4, pp.1-13, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2023 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00031
  • Journal Name: ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Geobase
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-13
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Access to clean water has gained great importance, especially in urban areas, in connection with drought within the framework of climate change. This study was carried out with hydrogeochemical investigation in a district of İzmir, the 3rd largest city of Turkiye, which contains economic natural ore deposits (Sb, Hg, and Pb-Zn). The heavy metal content of groundwater has great importance in and around the ore deposits for health risk assessments (HRA) and water quality index (WQI) interpretations. Groundwater samples in the study area were taken from different units such as gneiss, marble, schist, and alluvium. The electrical conductivity of water varies between 466 and 2720 μS/cm. The waters are of NaCaHCO3 and CaNaHCO3 water types. Silicate and carbonate weathering were seen in the waters taken from gneiss/schist and marble/alluvium, respectively. Al, Ni, and Sb values of groundwater exceeded the drinking water standards. Sb concentrations can reach 967 ppb, and all waters are oversaturated with Sb(OH)3. It is thought that Sb mixes with groundwater along faults from mineralization zones. According to the WQI, the groundwater is not suitable for drinking. If the presence of ore deposits is neglected in the WQI, water that is dangerous for drinking is incorrectly considered ″drinkable″. The HRA was calculated for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Sb, and Zn parameters. The hazard coefficient of Sb is more than 1 for adults and children. The most striking effect of Sb compounds is that they disrupt the heart rhythm and cause irreparable damage to the nervous system.