Effects of activated protein C on neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury


Yesilirmak D. C., KUMRAL A., TUĞYAN K., CİLAKER MIÇILI S., BASKIN A. H., YILMAZ O., ...More

BRAIN RESEARCH, vol.1210, pp.56-62, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 1210
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.02.088
  • Journal Name: BRAIN RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.56-62
  • Keywords: activated protein C, newborn, hypoxic-ischemic injury, brain, SPATIAL MEMORY DEFICITS, WHITE-MATTER INJURY, ANTICOAGULANT ACTIVITY, PERINATAL ASPHYXIA, CEREBRAL INJURY, RATS, APOPTOSIS, MODEL, INHIBITION, RECEPTOR-1
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia remains the single most important cause of brain injury in the newborn, leading to death or lifelong sequelae. White matter injuries in newborn infants have long-term effects on physical, visual, motor, sensory, cognitive and social development in human infants. There is no known cure for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE). Activated protein C has potent anticoagulant activity due to its ability to inactivate factor Va and VIIIa. APC is the first effective biological therapy approved for the treatment of severe sepsis. Although APC is well defined as a physiological anticoagulant, emerging data suggest that it also has cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. APC has been shown to provide neuroprotection in ischemic brain and spinal cord injury. Here, we propose that APC, which modulates many of these processes, may represent a promising therapeutic agent for NHIE. Seven days old Wistar Albino rat pups have been used in the study (n = 42). Experimental groups in the study were: sham-operated group, APC treated group, and vehicle treated group. in hypoxia-ischemia groups, the left common carotid artery was ligated permanently on the seventh postnatal day. Two hours after the procedure, hypoxia (92% nitrogen and 8% oxygen) was applied for 2.5 h. APC were injected (intraperitoneally; i.p.) as a single dose immediately after the hypoxia period. Brain nitrite levels, neuronal cell death, and apoptosis were evaluated in both hemispheres 72 h after the hypoxic-ischemic insult. Histopathological evaluation demonstrated that APC significantly diminished the number of "apoptotic cells" in the hippocampal CA1, CA2, CA3 and gyrus dentatus regions in both hemispheres. APC treatment significantly reduced 11 apoptotic cell death" in both hemispheres, when compared with vehicle treated group. APC significantly preserved the number of neurons CA1, CA3 regions of the hippocampus, when compared with vehicle treated group. our results showed that hypoxic-ischemic injury caused a significant increase in NO production. The APC-treated animals were reduced brain nitrite levels in carotid ligated hemispheres. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates a protective effect of the APC against hypoxia-ischemia in the developing brain. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V.