Decolorization of azo dyes under batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic/aerobic conditions


Isik M., SPONZA D. T.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND HEALTH PART A-TOXIC/HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, vol.39, no.4, pp.1107-1127, 2004 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

Abstract

Batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)/aerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were used to determine the color and COD removals under anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Two azo dyes namely "Reactive Black 5 (RB 5)," "Congo Red (CR)," and glucose as a carbon source were used for synthetic wastewater. The course of the decolorization process approximates to first order and zero order kinetics with respect to dye concentration for RB 5 and Congo Red azo dyes, respectively, in batch conditions. The decolorization kinetic constant (KO) values increased from 3.6 to 11.8 mg (L h)(-1) as increases in dye concentrations from 200 to 3200 mg L-1 for CR. Increases in dye concentrations from 0 to 3200 mg L-1 reduce the decolorization rate constant (k(1)) values from 0.0141 to 0.0019 h(-1) in batch studies performed with RB 5. Decolorization was achieved effectively under test conditions but ultimate decolorization of azo dyes was not observed at all dye concentrations in batch assay conditions. Dye concentrations of 100 mg L-1 and 3000 mg L-1 of glucose-COD containing basal medium were used for continuous studies. The effect of organic loadings and HRT, on the color removal efficiencies and methane gas productions were monitored. 94.1-45.4% COD and 79-73% color removal efficiencies were obtained at an organic system during decolorization of Reactive Black 5. 92.3-77.0% COD and 95.3-92.2% decolorization efficiencies were achieved at a organic loading rate of 1.03-6.65 kg (m(3) day)(-1) and a HRT of 3.54-0.49 for Congo Red treatment. The results of this study showed that, although decolorization continued, COD removal efficiencies and methane gas production were depressed at high organic loadings under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, VFA accumulation, alkalinity consumption, and methane gas percentage were monitored at organic loading as high as 2.49-4.74 kg (m(3) day)(-1) and 24.60-30.62 kg (m(3) day)(-1), respectively, through the decolorization of RB 5 and CR dyes in the UASB reactor.