Differences in cognitive impairment between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Considering the role of heterogeneity


BORA İ. E.

PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, vol.70, no.10, pp.424-433, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 70 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/pcn.12410
  • Journal Name: PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.424-433
  • Keywords: bipolar disorder, cognition, heterogeneity, psychosis, schizophrenia, POPULATION-BASED COHORT, EUTHYMIC PATIENTS, HIGH-RISK, 1ST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA, SCHIZOAFFECTIVE DISORDER, INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, 1ST-DEGREE RELATIVES, NEUROCOGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT, ADULT SCHIZOPHRENIA, CLINICAL SUBTYPES
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Schizophrenia is associated with significant cognitive impairment. Bipolar disorder (BD) also presents with cognitive deficits that are similar to, albeit less severe, than those reported in schizophrenia. There has been controversy over whether selective deficits in social cognition or developmental trajectory of cognitive deficits can distinguish schizophrenia from BD. Also, available studies have not generally considered the potential effect of cognitive heterogeneity within the two disorders on between-group differences. The current review examines the evidence on the specificity of social cognitive deficits and early neurocognitive impairment to schizophrenia and explores the overall outcome of studies investigating within and cross-diagnosis cognitive heterogeneity in schizophrenia and BD. Current evidence does not support the specificity of social cognitive impairment to schizophrenia. Available studies also suggest that cognitive impairment in premorbid and early stages is evident not only in schizophrenia but also in many BD patients. Both schizophrenia and BD have a number of cognitive subgroups, including severe impairment, good functioning, and one or more selective or modest impairment clusters. While both disorders are represented in each cognitive subgroup, there are significant cross-diagnostic differences regarding prevalences of individuals belonging to the severe impairment and good functioning subgroups. Individuals with schizophrenia are much more likely to exhibit severe cognitive impairment than individuals with BD and good cognitive functioning is more often observed in BD patients than schizophrenia patients. Further identification of the neurobiological and genetic characteristics of the cognitive subgroups in major psychoses can improve the validity of diagnostic systems and can advance the development of personalized management approaches, including cognitive remediation.