The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in primary schoolchildren in Denizli, Turkey, and to determine the possible risk factors for atopic dermatitis in home environment. A self-administered questionnaire was handled to the parents of 2,100 children aged 7 to 15 years, from three randomized primary schools and 1,644 (78.9%) completed and returned the questionnaire. The questionnaire included the United Kingdom Working Party diagnostic criteria and asked about conditions that could affect the course of atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis and coexisting factors that may affect the course of the disease were evaluated in 1,644 children (825 girls and 819 boys). The prevalence of atopic dermatitis was detected as 4.9%. Passive smoking, heating systems either in the house or in the child's bedroom, and the number of people living in the house had no significant effect (p > 0.005). The difference in prevalence of atopic dermatitis between developed and developing countries is striking. The determination of the factors that have an influence in this issue will probably enable us to change the course and frequency of atopic dermatitis.