Acorn (Quercus ithaburensis) Flour's effect on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of raw and cooked beef meatballs

AKCAN T., Önel E., Ergezer H.

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, vol.35, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijgfs.2024.100887
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Food Science & Technology Abstracts
  • Keywords: Acorn flour, Beef patty, Binder, Cooking characteristics, Sensory
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


This research focused on examining the physicochemical properties, cooking attributes, textural qualities, and sensory analyses of meatballs containing varying percentages (control - 0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%) of acorn flour. The investigation encompassed both raw samples (on days 1, 3, 5, and 7) and cooked samples (on days 0, 4, 7, 10, and 14), all stored at a temperature of 4 ± 2 °C. Compared to the control group, the moisture, ash, and protein values of the cooked meatballs containing acorn flour decreased, while the fat values increased. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the moisture, ash, and protein values (P > 0.05). It was found that the pH levels of raw and cooked meatball groups decreased over the course of storage. L* values of meatballs were affected by adding acorn and darker-colored meatballs tended to have higher a* values. It was found that acorn flour was not effective in preventing lipid oxidation in raw and cooked meatballs during storage. It was found that the cooking efficiency, thickness increase, water holding capacity, and moisture retention values of the meatballs were improved when acorn flour was added (P < 0.05). Although the fat retention value of the meatball samples increased when the acorn flour level was increased from 3% to 9%, it was determined that there was no significant difference between the meatball groups (P > 0.05). Compared to the control group, the addition of acorn flour increased the hardness values and decreased the adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness values. In general, as a result of the use of acorn flour in meatballs, sensory properties other than color were not adversely affected.