The lacustrine sediments and geomorphological data from the Bor Plain situated at elevations between 1050 and 1100 m in southern Central Anatolia provide record between 9800 and 6700 yr cal BP of climate changes and events. The main aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the location of Neolithic sites and the deposition and recession phases of the lake during Holocene. The geomorphological history of the Bor Plain and palynological results allows us to reconstruct the relationship between the Holocene environment and reconstruction of Neolithic settlements within a spatially well-defined lacustrine landscape of similar to 600 km(2). A 75 +/- 13 ka aged terrace, consisting almost entirely of calcite and situated about 76 m above the plain floor, indicates that the plain was covered with a paleolake in the transition from MIS 5 to MIS 4. Considering the low total organic carbon and the high CaCO3 clay values, we conclude that the lake slowly receded in 9867 +/- 39 cal BP. However, the presence of aquatic herbaceous forms such as Nymphaceae and Cyperaceae indicates an increase in the water level of the lake during 6776 +/- 35 cal BP, after which it transitioned to a dried lake. Thus, the progression and recession phases of the lake became the determining factor in the site selection of Neolithic settlements on mounds by which are found the plain floor at elevations between 1090 and 1100 m in this period on the Bor Plain.