Patients With Lateral and Anterolateral Cam Morphology Have Greater Deformities Versus Typical Anterolateral Deformity Alone but No Differences in Postoperative Outcomes: A Propensity-Matched Analysis at Minimum 5-Year Follow-Up


Larson J. H., Chapman R. S., Allahabadi S., Kaplan D. J., Jan K., Kazi O., ...More

Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

Abstract

Purpose: To compare pre- and postoperative findings between patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome with lateral impingement versus those without lateral impingement Methods: Patients who underwent primary hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome between 2012 and 2017 with minimum 5-year follow-up were included. Alpha angle (AA) was measured on preoperative anteroposterior (AP) and 90° Dunn radiographs. Patients with AA >60° on Dunn view but not AP view (no lateral impingement) were propensity matched by sex, age, and body mass index in a 1:3 ratio to patients with AA >60° on both views (lateral impingement). Demographic characteristics, radiographic and intraoperative findings, reoperation rates, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were compared between groups. Categorical variables were compared using the Fisher exact testing and continuous variable using 2-tailed Student t tests. Results: Sixty patients with lateral impingement (65.0% female, age: 35.3 ± 13.0 years) were matched to 180 patients without lateral impingement (65.0% female, age: 34.7 ± 12.5 years, P ≥.279). Patients with lateral impingement had larger preoperative AAs on both Dunn (71.0° ± 8.8° vs 67.6° ± 6.1°, P =.001) and AP radiographs (79.0° ± 12.1° vs 48.2° ± 6.5°, P <.001). However, there were no differences in postoperative AAs on either view (Dunn: 39.0° ± 6.1° vs 40.5° ± 5.3°, AP: 45.8° ± 9.0° vs 44.9° ± 7.0°, P ≥.074). Labral tears began more superiorly in patients with lateral impingement (12:00 ± 0:49 vs 12:17 ± 0:41, P =.030), and they demonstrated greater rates of acetabular and femoral cartilage damage (P =.030 for both); however, there were no differences in PROs or reoperation rates between the groups at 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: Although cam deformities located laterally and anterolaterally are larger than those located anterolaterally alone, both can be resected adequately, resulting in similar postoperative radiographic measurements, PROs, and survivorship. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.