Simpson's paradox

Alın A.

Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics, vol.2, no.2, pp.247-250, 2010 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/wics.72
  • Journal Name: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Compendex
  • Page Numbers: pp.247-250
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Simpson's paradox occurs when an observed association between two variables is reversed after considering the third variable. Having two different conclusions makes this phenomenon paradoxical. In this article, it will be shown that the source of this paradox is the interactions between the third variable and any of the other two variables. There will also be a section about which association should be trusted. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.