In this study, the effect of climatic conditions on oestrus occurrence was investigated by using 9 972 oestrus records of cows recorded between 1995 and 2003. A distinct seasonal variation in the oestrus occurrence was determined. Oestrus occurrence observed in January, March, November and December was less than that in June and September (P<0.05). Annual distribution of the oestrus occurrence was positively correlated with environment temperature and insulation duration, but it was negatively correlated with rainfall (P<0.01). However, there was no relationship between oestrus occurrence and relative humidity. In addition to these, there was a slight decrease in the oestrus response when the temperature-humidity index (THI) was above 72; nevertheless, this decrease was not significant (P>0.05). The data presented in this study demonstrated that the increase in the environmental temperature up to 23 degrees C did not cause a suppressive effect on the ovarian activity. In conclusion, annual distribution of the oestrus occurrence is positively correlated with environment temperature and insulation duration whereas it is negatively correlated with rainfall in Holstein cows, in this study.