Point of care diaphragm ultrasound in mechanically ventilated children: A predictive tool to detect extubation failure

Arslan G., Besci T., Duman M.

PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, vol.57, no.6, pp.1432-1439, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 57 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ppul.25916
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1432-1439
  • Keywords: children, critical care, diaphragm ultrasound, extubation, mechanical ventilation, weaning, PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE-CARE, READINESS, THICKNESS, ATROPHY
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Background Children should be weaned from the ventilator once their clinical condition improves. Extubation failure is associated with poorer clinical outcomes in children. Predictive indicators of successful extubation are needed. This study aims to evaluate the predictive value of ultrasonographic diaphragm imaging could help predict weaning success. Methods In this prospective, observational study conducted between March and December 2021, children between 1 month and 10 years of age who were mechanically ventilated for more than 48 h were included. Diaphragm ultrasound (DUS) examinations were performed at the end of 2-h extubation readiness test (ERT). The end-inspiratory thickness (DTi), end-expiratory thickness (DTe), diaphragmatic thickening fraction (DTF), diaphragmatic excursion (DE), inspiratory slope (IS), and expiratory slope (ES) were evaluated. Results Twenty-four (60%) patients were successfully extubated, while 16 (40%) required invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation support which were classified as failed extubation group. Three of the sixteen patients in the failed extubation group required reintubation. DTF was significantly greater in the successful weaning group (55.05 +/- 23.75% vs. 30.9 +/- 10.38%) (p < 0.001). DE was significantly greater in the successful weaning group (14 +/- 4.4 mm vs. 11.05 +/- 3.25 mm) (p < 0.001). DTF and DE were found to have a sensitivity and specificity of 91.67%, 87.50%, 83.33%, and 81.25%, respectively. Conclusion Diaphragm ultrasound is a feasible and promising tool to guide physicians during weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation. Among all DUS measurements, the DE and DTF indexes showed better performance in extubation failure than other diaphragmatic parameters.