In the last two decades, many studies have been published in the media and in the scientific world on the effect of radiofrequency (RF) emissions distributed from cellular phones on cancer. There are contradictory results on this topic in the literature. The assessment of these studies from the biophysical point of view revealed that RF energy in general did not cause a significant biological effect. However, there are also reports suggesting a direct or indirect effect of thermal RF energy on cancer progression. Studies performed in humans mainly concentrated on brain cancer, leukemia and intraocular melanoma. Although no solid association was found between cellular phone use and cancer risk, there are some studies showing an increased risk in acoustic neuroma and glioma due to long term (>= 10 years) cellular phone use. Animal studies could not provide consistent evidence that RF energy exposure at non-termal intensities caused cancer. Cell culture studies showed that the epigenetic potential of RF energy was also limited. The common point of the majority of the studies performed to find a causal association between the use of cellular phones and cancer was the deficiencies in their methodologies. In order to evaluate the possible causal association between the RF energy emissions from cellular phones and cancer thoroughly, studies with larger numbers of cases, longer durations of follow-ups, and more precisely planned methodologies are needed.