Estimation of forensic age using substages of ossification of the medial clavicle in living individuals

Ekizoglu O., Hocaoglu E., Inci E., CAN İ. Ö., AKSOY S., Sayin I.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEGAL MEDICINE, vol.129, no.6, pp.1259-1264, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 129 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00414-015-1234-y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1259-1264
  • Keywords: Age estimation, Schmeling method, Medial clavicular epiphyses, Computed tomography, Substages, COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY, TIME FRAME, BONE-AGE, EPIPHYSIS, CT, STAGE
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Forensic age estimation based on staging of ossification of the medial clavicular bone is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. In the present study, we analyzed the stages of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses on thin-sliced (1 mm) computed tomography (CT) images using the substages defined within stages 2 and 3. The retrospective CT analysis involved 193 subjects (129 males, 64 females) ranging in age from 13 to 28 years. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between age and ossification stage in both male and female subjects. Stage 3c was first observed at 19 years of age in both sexes and may thus serve as a valuable forensic marker for determining an age of 18 years. Although further research is needed on the ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphyses, the present findings could contribute to existing reports on observers' experiences using CT analysis of ossification combined with analysis of substages.