How artificial intelligence can provide information about subdural hematoma: Assessment of readability, reliability, and quality of ChatGPT, BARD, and perplexity responses

Gül Ş., ERDEMİR İ., Hanci V., Aydoğmuş E., Erkoç Y. S.

Medicine, vol.103, no.18, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 103 Issue: 18
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/md.0000000000038009
  • Journal Name: Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Subdural hematoma is defined as blood collection in the subdural space between the dura mater and arachnoid. Subdural hematoma is a condition that neurosurgeons frequently encounter and has acute, subacute and chronic forms. The incidence in adults is reported to be 1.72-20.60/100.000 people annually. Our study aimed to evaluate the quality, reliability and readability of the answers to questions asked to ChatGPT, Bard, and perplexity about "Subdural Hematoma." In this observational and cross-sectional study, we asked ChatGPT, Bard, and perplexity to provide the 100 most frequently asked questions about "Subdural Hematoma" separately. Responses from both chatbots were analyzed separately for readability, quality, reliability and adequacy. When the median readability scores of ChatGPT, Bard, and perplexity answers were compared with the sixth-grade reading level, a statistically significant difference was observed in all formulas (P < .001). All 3 chatbot responses were found to be difficult to read. Bard responses were more readable than ChatGPT's (P < .001) and perplexity's (P < .001) responses for all scores evaluated. Although there were differences between the results of the evaluated calculators, perplexity's answers were determined to be more readable than ChatGPT's answers (P < .05). Bard answers were determined to have the best GQS scores (P < .001). Perplexity responses had the best Journal of American Medical Association and modified DISCERN scores (P < .001). ChatGPT, Bard, and perplexity's current capabilities are inadequate in terms of quality and readability of "Subdural Hematoma" related text content. The readability standard for patient education materials as determined by the American Medical Association, National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services is at or below grade 6. The readability levels of the responses of artificial intelligence applications such as ChatGPT, Bard, and perplexity are significantly higher than the recommended 6th grade level.