Contamination of Soil by Obsolete Pesticide Stockpiles: A Case Study of Derince Province, Turkey

Kurt-Karakus P. B., Odabaşı M., Birgul A., Yaman B., Gunel E., Dumanoğlu Y., ...More

ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00244-023-01043-9
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


The areal distributions of the soil organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels were investigated at adjacent and surrounding sites of the obsolete pesticide stockpile warehouse in Kocaeli, Turkiye. OCP levels in soil at neighboring sampling locations (positioned at 0.4 to 3 km from the stockpile) varied from 0.4 to 9 mu g/kg and 4.2 to 2226 mu g/kg (dry weight) for sigma HCHs and sigma DDXs, respectively. Levels at adjacent locations (positioned within 20 m from the stockpile) were considerably higher, varying from 74 to 39,619 mu g/kg and 1592 to 30,419 mu g/kg for sigma HCHs and sigma DDXs, respectively. Levels of OCPs dropped abruptly with the horizontal distance from the stockpile and had different transect profiles. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) near the stockpile range from 0.494 to 0.521, 0.454 to 0.515, and 0.483 to 0.533 for alpha-HCH, o,p '-DDT, and o,p '-DDD, respectively. These near-racemic EFs suggested that observed soil OCP levels were mainly influenced by recent emissions from the stockpile. A comparison of OCP compositions observed in the soil at the present study with the technical HCHs and DDTs revealed that the material in the stockpile primarily contains byproducts that were discarded during DDT and Lindane production at the adjacent plant instead of their technical mixtures.