Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities of endemic Cephalaria tuteliana

Kiliccioglu I., Dulger G., Senturk F., Bozyel M. E., CANLI K., Dulger B.

South African Journal of Botany, vol.169, pp.231-241, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 169
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.sajb.2024.04.038
  • Journal Name: South African Journal of Botany
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.231-241
  • Keywords: Antimicrobial, Cephalaria tuteliana, DPPH, GC-MS, Prostate cancer cells
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: The genus Cephalaria, belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family, is a rich source of secondary metabolites, including mainly saponins which display a variety of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancerous effects. This study was carried out to observe the biochemical composition and to evaluate the biological activities of Cephalaria tuteliana Kus & Gokturk. Methods: The composition of endemic C. tuteliana was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) studies. Antimicrobial effect were determined by the disk diffusion and dilution methods for test bacteria and test fungi. The antioxidant potential of the ethanol extract was also investigated. Cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis were investigated by WST-1 and ELISA methods. The migration level of PC-3 prostate cancer cells after plant extract application was examined by wound healing assay. Also, molecular docking experiments were performed to investigate the anticancer activity of the major component found in the C.tuteliana extract. Results: GC–MS analysis showed that the predominant compounds were Phenol, 2,2′-methylenebis [6-(1,1dimethyl ethyl)-4-methyl- (23.54 %), 9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol, (Z,Z,Z)-(6.06 %) and n-Hexadecanoic acid (3.03 %). The ethanolic extract of C. tuteliana displayed moderate antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of tested microorganisms. Also, it exhibited significant antiproliferative effects on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells while having no harmful effects on healthy control HUVEC cells. Furthermore, enhanced expressions of Caspase-3, 8, and 9 were observed in PC-3 cells after plant extract treatment. Also, cell migration level was notably reduced, especially at a dose of 400 µg/mL in PC-3 cells. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts of C. tuteliana showed higher activity than ascorbic acid. Molecular docking experiments showed potential binding of the major aromatic compound in C.tuteliana extract to human androgen receptor 1E3G protein. Conclusion: These findings highlight the potential of C. tuteliana as a valuable natural resource and pave the way for further in vivo prostate cancer investigations.