Self-reported anxiety and depression among COVID-19 patients within six months of follow-up: A prospective cohort study

Şiyve N., Emecen A. N., Keskin S., Başoğlu Şensoy E., Turunç Ö., Süner A. F., ...More

Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Dergisi, vol.21, no.2, pp.152-164, 2023 (Scopus)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.20518/tjph.1166269
  • Journal Name: Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.152-164
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-reported moderate or severe anxiety and depression among COVID-19 patients during a six-month follow-up and to identify associated baseline factors. Methods: The study included patients aged ≥18 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Turkey, between November 2020 and May 2021. Telephone interviews were conducted at 1st, 3rd, and 6th months post-diagnosis to assess feelings of anxiety and depression using the EQ-5D-3L scale. Generalized estimating equations were employed to identify factors associated with anxiety and depression after infection. Results: A total of 5446 patients participated in the study. The prevalence of feeling anxious or depressive at 1st, 3rd, and 6th months post-diagnosis was 18.5%, 17.9%, and 15.4%, respectively. Several factors were associated with self-reported anxiety or depression: Older age (≥65 years; OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.95-1.44), female gender (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.96), unfavourable economic status (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.34-1.97), more symptoms (4-5, OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.21-1.81; ≥5, OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.35-2.01), having multiple underlying health conditions (1-2, OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.19-1.54; ≥3: OR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.13-1.99), and intensive care unit admission (OR: 2.58, 95% CI: 1.70-3.90). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients commonly experience anxiety or depression, which may persist long-term. Gender, economic status, and disease severity play significant roles in their psychological well-being. Identifying vulnerable groups can be instrumental in early diagnosis and provision of targeted mental care services.