Conjunctival Histopathological Changes in Children With Vitamin D Deficiency

Aydemir G. A., Ilhan C., PEHLİVANOĞLU B., Aydemir E., Kiziltoprak H., Bolu S.

EYE & CONTACT LENS-SCIENCE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE, vol.48, no.7, pp.289-294, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/icl.0000000000000903
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.289-294
  • Keywords: Impression cytology, Schirmer, Tear break-up time, Vitamin D, DRY EYE, OCULAR SURFACE, RECEPTOR, DISEASE
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate tear function-associated clinical findings and conjunctival histopathological changes in children with vitamin D (Vit-D) deficiency. Methods: This study used a prospective case-control design. Group 1 (n=38) comprised pediatric patients with Vit-D deficiency, and group 2 (n=45) was the control group. Tear break-up times (TBUTs), Schirmer-1 test measurements, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores, and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) results of the groups were compared. Results: The participant demographic characteristics, including the mean age and the male-to-female ratio, were similar (P>0.05). The median TBUT and Schirmer-1 test measurement were 10 s (5-15) and 12 mm (6-19) in group 1 and 11 s (6-16) and 15 mm (8-21) in group 2 (P=0.004 and P=0.013, respectively). The median OSDI scores were 16 (10-20) in group 1 and 17 (10-21) in group 2 (P=0.092). According to the CIC, 25 samples in group 1 and 40 samples in group 2 were categorized as grade 0, 11 samples in group 1 and 5 samples in group 2 were categorized as grade 1, and 2 samples in group 1 and no sample in group 2 were categorized as grade 2 (P=0.027). Conclusion: Significant conjunctival histopathological changes occur in children with Vit-D deficiency, and these changes have effects on some tear function-associated clinical findings including the Schirmer-1 test and TBUT measurements.