Obesity, fatty liver disease and intestinal microbiota


ARSLAN N.

WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, vol.20, no.44, pp.16452-16463, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 20 Issue: 44
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i44.16452
  • Journal Name: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.16452-16463
  • Keywords: Intestinal microbiota, Dysbiosis, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, Obesity, LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-BINDING PROTEIN, GUT MICROBIOTA, INSULIN-RESISTANCE, NONALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS, BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH, HEPATIC STEATOSIS, METABOLIC ENDOTOXEMIA, SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION, ADIPOSE-TISSUE, RISK-FACTORS
  • Dokuz Eylül University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. (C) 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.